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Multiple myeloma from academic kids (redirected from myeloma) multiple myeloma (also known simply as myeloma or plasma cell myeloma) is a presently incurable hematological malignancy of plasma cells, the cells of the immune system that produce antibodies. Although it initially develops in the bone marrow, it spreads to the peripheral blood, lymph nodes and other organs. Its prognosis despite therapy is generally poor. Contents 1 signs and symptoms 2 diagnosis 3 types 4 pathophysiology 5 epidemiology 6 staging 7 prognostic factors 8 treatment 9 history 10 see also 11 external links [edit] signs and symptoms symptoms can include: malaise, anemia, infections (due to decreased immunity) and fractures (due to breakdown of bone by malignant cells). Often, the diagnosis of multiple myeloma is made incidentally during routine blood tests for other conditions. Osteoporosis is often present in an accelerated form in myeloma patients. [edit] diagnosis the existence of unexplained anemia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (esr) and a high serum protein (especially raised globulin) may suggest further testing. A doctor will then order protein electrophoresis of the blood and urine, on which a paraprotein (monoclonal protein, or m protein) band can be noticed. buy viagra online cheap viagra overnight delivery cheap online viagra viagra online discount pharmacy viagra viagra online generic viagra buy viagra online legally canadian viagra generic viagra online forsale Quantitative measurements of the paraprotein are necessary to determine the seriousness of the disease. The paraprotein is a deviant immunoglobulin produced by the tumour clone. Very rarely, the myeloma is nonsecretory (not producing immunoglobulins). In theory, myeloma can produce all classes of immunoglobulin, but ige and igd myeloma are very rare. Additional findings are: a raised calcium (when myeloma cells are breaking down bone, releasing calcium into the bloodstream) and decreased renal function (due to amyloid of the kidney). A bone marrow biopsy is required for a complete diagnosis. This shows over 10% plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry can confirm the plasma cell character of uncertain cells. Cytogenetics is generally not performed in myeloma, although particular aberrations have been reported (see below). [edit] types there are at least two forms of myeloma: secretory - where paraproteins are released that allow blood and/or urine testing for diagnosis and progression monitoring. Non-secretory - where paraproteins are not released and are thus not available for blood or urine testing. Progression in these cases is monitored through bone marrow biopsy. It is rare compared to the secretory forms. Related conditions are solitary plasmacytoma (a single tumor of plasma cells producing antibodies, typically treated with irradiation), plasma cell dyscrasia (where only the antibodies produce symptoms, e. G. Amyloidosis) and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (mgus). [edit] pathophysiology the accepted theory is that myeloma develops when a chromosomal translocation occurs between the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (on the fourteenth ch.

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